Suku Tengger

Tiap kali aku guiding ke Bromo, Kebanyakan dari turis-turis berkata “they are like Mongolian” aku cuma bisa pasang muka penuh dengan tanda tanya, dalam hati pun berkata “Iya kah??’ aku juga belum pernah ke mongolia, wajar donk tidak tahu secara langsung. Setelah aku browsing di Internet mencari persamaan dari orang Tengger dan orang Mongolia. ternyata emang hampir mirip antara orang Tengger dan orang Mongolia. dari segi fisik, mereka hampir sama yaitu dari tinggi tubuh, mata agak sipit, warna kulit dan pipi memerah jika terkena suhu dingin.

Suku Tengger merupakan suku yang tinggal di kawasan gunung Bromo baik di daerah Tosari (Kab. Pasuruan), Ngadisari (Kab. Probolinggo), Ranupane (Kab. Lumajan) dan  Ngadas (Kab. Malang). Secara fisik, mereka memiliki ciri khas tersendiri. Ciri-ciri adalah memakai sepatu boot, sarung dililitkan di leher, serta penutup kepala biasa disebut “kupluk”. Alasan mereka memakai pakaian seperti itu karena kondisi alam dimana mereka tinggal begitu tinggi dan dingin. memakai boot karena mayoritas dari penduduknya adalah sebagai Petani jadi bisa memudahkan mereka berjalan di pematang ladang. Kain sarung sudah menjadi tradisi harus dipakai oleh masyarakat tengger untuk menghangatkan badan, meskipun kain sarung lumayan tipis. Sedangkan Kupluk sebagai pelindung kepala dari embun dan udara dingin apabila memulai aktifitas di pagi atau siang hari.

Menurut mitos atau legenda yang berkembang di masyarakat suku Tengger, mereka berasal dari keturunan Roro Anteng yang merupakan putri dari Raja Brawijaya dengan Joko Seger putra seorang Brahmana. Nama suku Tengger diambil dari akhiran nama kedua pasang suami istri itu yaitu, “Teng” dari Roro Anteng dan “Ger” dari Joko Seger. Legenda tentang Roro Anteng dan Joko Seger yang berjanji pada Dewa untuk menyerahkan putra bungsu mereka, Raden Kusuma merupakan awal mula terjadinya upacara Kasodo di Tengger.
Menurut beberapa ahli sejarah, suku Tengger merupakan penduduk asli orang Jawa yang pada saat itu hidup pada masa kejayaan Majapahit. Saat masuknya Islam di Indonesia (pulau Jawa) saat itu terjadi persinggungan antara Islam dengan kerajaan-kerajaan yang ada di Jawa, salah satunya adalah Majapahit yang merasa terdesak dengan kedatangan pengaruh Islam, kemudian melarikan diri ke wilayah Bali dan pedalaman di sekitar Gunung Bromo dan Semeru. Mereka yang berdiam di sekitar pedalaman Gunung Bromo ini kemudian mendirikan kampung yang namanya diambil dari akhiran nama pemimpin mereka yaitu Roro Anteng dan Joko Seger.

Unsur-Unsur Kebudayaan

  • Bahasa

Suku Tengger merupakan salah satu sub kelompok orang Jawa yang mengembangkan variasai budaya yang khas sehingga hal itu menjadikan sebagai ciri khas tersendiri. Kekhasan ini bisa dilihat dari bahasanya, dimana mereka menggunakan bahasa Jawa dialek tengger, tanpa tingkatan bahasa sebagaimana yang ada pada tingkatan bahasa dalam bahasa Jawa pada umumnya. Bahasa yang di gunakan sebagai alat komunikasi adalah Bahasa Jawa Tengger yakni Bahasa Jawa Kuno diyakini sebagai dialek asli orang-orang Majapahit, Contoh “Nanak Picis e” artinya tidak punya uang.

  • Pengetahuan

Saat ini perkembangan pendidikan bisa dilihat dengan berdirinya sekolah sekolah baik dari tingkat dasar sampai menengah. Meskipun secara lokasi sangat jauh dari kerabaikan kota, mereka bisa mendapatkan pendidikan yang layak.

  • Teknologi

Wisatawan Mancanegara dan domestik memberikan pengaruh yang besar dalam berkembangnya teknologi yang ada di wilayah pegunungan Bromo.  Maksudnya, dalam hal komunikasi masyarakat Tengger sudah mengenal telephon genggam (Hp). Teknologi transportasi seperti mobil, pick-up dan motor untuk pergi ke ladang. Dengan adanya kemajuan teknologi komunikasi dan transportasi bisa memudahkan mereka dalam menjalani aktivitas. Namun dalam hal bercocok tanam mereka masih menggunakan alat-alat secara tradional seperti cangkul. Bagi yang tidak memiliki kendaraan sendiri, mereka berjalan kaki sejauh 1-2 Km dari rumah menuju ladang. Bisa dibilang, Masyarakat tengger tidak ada yang terkena Obesitas. sebab mereka memiliki pola hidup sehat.

  • Agama

Mayoritas masyarakat Tengger memeluk agama Hindu, namun agama Hindu yang dianut berbeda dengan agama Hindu di Bali, yaitu Hindu Dharma. Hindu yang berkembang di masyarakat Tengger adalah Hindu Mahayana. Selain agama Hindu, agama laiin yang dipeluk adalah agama Islam, Protestan, Kristen, dll. Berdasarkan ajaran agama Hindu yang dianut, setiap tahun mereka melakukan upacara Kasono. Selain Kasodo, upacara lain yaitu upacara Karo, Kapat, Kapitu, Kawulo, Kasanga. Sesaji dan mantra amat kental pengaruhnya dalam masyarakat suku Tengger. Masyarakat Tengger percaya bahwa mantra-mantra yang mereka pergunakan adalah mantra-mantra putih bukan mantra hitam yang sifatnya merugikan.

  • Perkawinan

Sebelum ada Undang-Undang perkawinan banyak anak-anak suku Tengger yang kawin dalam usia belia, misalnya pada usia 10-14 tahun. Namun, pada masa sekarang hal tersebut sudah banyak berkurang dan pola perkawinannya endogami. Adat perkawinan yang diterapkan oleh siuku Tengger tidak berbeda jauh dengan adat perkawinan orang Jawa hanya saja yang bertindak sebagai penghulu dan wali keluarga adalah dukun Pandita. Adat menetap setelah menikah adalah neolokal, yaitu pasangan suami-istri bertempat tinggal di lingkungan yang baru. Untuk sementara pasangan pengantin berdiam terlebih dahulu dilingkungan kerabat istri.

  •  Sistem Kekerabaran & Kemasyarakatan

Seperti orang Jawa lainnya, orang Tengger menarik garis keturunan berdasarkan prinsip bilateral yaitu garis keturunan pihak ayah dan ibu. Kelompok kekerabatan yang terkecil adalah keluarga inti yang terdiri dari suami, istri, dan anak-anak.

Masyarakat suku Tengger terdiri atas kelompok-kelompok desa yang masing-masing kelompok tersebut dipimpin oleh tetua. Dan seluruh perkampungan ini dipimpin oleh seorang kepala adat. Masyarakat suku Tengger amat percaya dan menghormati dukun di wilayah mereka dibandingkan pejabat administratif karena dukun sangat berpengaruh dalam kehidupan masyarakat Tengger. Masyarakat Tengger mengangkat masyarakat lain dari luar masyarakat Tengger sebagai warga kehormatan dan tidak semuanya bisa menjadi warga kehormatan di masyarakat Tengger. Masyarakat muslim Tengger biasanya tinggal di desa-desa yang agak bawah sedangkan Hindu Tengger tinggal didesa-desa yang ada di atasnya.

  • Mata Pencaharian

Masyarakat Tengger mendapatkan penghasilan untuk hidup dari bekerja di Ladang baik itu ladang mereka sendiri maupun menyewa kepada Balai Taman Nasional Tengger semeru. Pada masa kini masyarakat Tengger umumnya hidup sebagai petani di ladang. Macam hasil pertaniannya adalah kentang, kubis, wortel, tembakau, dan jagung. Jagung adalah makanan pokok suku Tengger. Selain bertani, ada sebagian masyarakat Tengger yang berprofesi menjadi pemandu wisatawan di Bromo. Salah satu cara yang digunakan adalah dengan menawarkan kuda yang mereka miliki untuk disewakan kepada wisatawan. Juga menawarkan penyewaan Jeep untuk menuju view point dan Gunung Bromo.

  • Nilai-Nilai Budaya

Orang Tengger sangat dihormati oleh masyarakat Tengger karena mereka selalu hidup rukun, sederahana, dan jujur serta cinta damai. Orang Tenggr suka bekerja keras, ramah, dan takut berbuat jahat seperti mencuri karena mereka dibayangi adanya hukum karma apabila mencuri barang orang lain maka akan datang balasan yaitu hartanya akan hilang lebih banyak lagi. Orang Tengger dangat menghormati Dukun dan Tetua adat mereka.

Dari penjelasan di atas bisa disimpulkan bahwa Masyarakat tengger sangat memegang teguh akan adat/tradisi mereka di zaman yang sudah moderen ini.

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“Wayang”: the shadow play

Wayang is the shadow play which uses leather of wooden puppets to dramatize stories from the Javanese version of the Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana or mythological versions of the history of the kingdoms of pre-colonial Java.

The shadow play is called so because the puppets, which are flat cutouts of leather, painted in gold, red, blues and blacks are made the cast large shadows on a white screen. The dalang, as the puppeteer is called, sits on a mat in front of the screen. A gamelan orchestra is behind him and an oil lamp hangs above his head (traditionally: nowadays, in the towns at least, an electric lamp is used). The puppet are fastened to a tortoise-shell stick, running from head to below their joined feet, at which point the dalang grasps the stick as a sort of handle. The movable arms, the only movable parts, also have short sticks attached to them which the dalang holds in the same hand and manipulates with his fingers. He holds the puppets up and either hand over his head and interposes them between the light and the screen. If they are nobles, as most are, he must be doubly careful never to let them get lower than his head. From the dalang’s side of the screen one thus sees the puppets themselves and their shadows rising up dominant on the screen behind them. From the reverse side of the wayang screen, one sees the shadows of the puppets only.

Along the base of the screen, in front of the dalang, there is a banana tree-trunk into which are stuck the puppets not immediately in use. As the play, which usually lasts all night progresses, the dalang takes the replaces characters from the tree-trunk as he needs them and manipulates the puppets immediately in play. (Mostly they are either enganged one another or, in the case of the clowns, in some kind of burlesque) he imitates all the voices called for, sings when singing is appropriate, kids an iron clapper with his foot to keep the rhythm and to symbolize the sounds of war and as he has only the bare outline of the story given to him by tradition, makes up most of details of the plot as he goes along, particularly in the comic scenes, which often contain elements of contemporary social criticism. He does this the whole night long, sitting until the dawn with his feet folded inwards in the formal Javanese sitting posture, performing with a dexterity, a fertility of invention and a physical endurance which are together remarkable.

 

The “Slametan”: Javanese Communal Feast

At the center of the whole Javanese religious system lies a simple, formal, undramatic, almost furtive, little ritual: the slametan (also sometimes called a kenduren). The slametan is the Javanese version of what is perhaps the world’s most common religious ritual, the communal feast and as almost everywhere, it symbolizes the mystic and social unity of those participating in it. Friends, neighbors, fellow workers, relative local spirits, dead ancestors and near-forgotten god pledged to mutual support and cooperation.

A slametan can be given in response to almost any occurrence one wishes to celebrate, ameliorate or sanctify. Birth, marriage, sorcery, death, house moving, bad dreams, harvest, name-changing, opening a factory, illness, supplication of the village guardian spirit, circumcision, and starting of a political meeting may all occasion a slametan. For each the emphasis is slightly different. One part of another of the total ritual is intensified and elaborated; structure of the ritual remains the same. There is always the special food (differing according to the intent of the slametan) : there is always incense, the Islamic chant and the extra-formal high-Javanese speech of the host (its content, too, naturally, varying with the occasion) and there is always the polite embarrassed, muted manner which suggest that, despite the brevity and lack of drama the ritual displays, something important is going on.

The Slametan pattern

Most slametans are held in the evening, just after the sun has gone down and the evening preyer – for those who perform in – is done. If the occasion is, say, a name-changing, a harvest, or a circumcision, the host will have employed a religious specialist to determine and auspicious day according to a numerological interpretation of the Javanese caledrical system; if it is a death or a birth, the event itself determines the timing. The day is spent in preparing the food. The woman do this: for a small feast only those of the household itself, for a large one a wider range of kin ties may be drawn upon. The ceremony itself is all male. The women remain mburi (behind in the kitchen) but they inevitably peek through the bamboo walls at the men, who, squatted on floor mats ngarepan (in front-i.e_ in the main living room) perform the actual ritual, eating the food the women have prepared.

The men invited are all close neighbors, since to a slametan one invites all those who live in the immediate area around one’s own house. The basis of within a short distance from one’s house in any direction must be invited and selection is entirely territorial: relative or not, friend or not, anyone who lives must come. They are called together by a messenger of the host (most often one of his children) only five or ten minutes before the slametan is to begin and they must drop everything and come immediately. Despite this apparently haphazard procedure, almost everyone turns up, because during the period just after sunset almost everyone is at home, people are usually aware – although no one may have actually said anything about it – that a slametan is about to be given a good while before it actually occurs and so expect the messenger, and the Javanese has a kind of punctuate sense of time which makes it easy for him to shift sharply from one kind of activity to another with very little transition.

Upon arrival each guest takes a place on the floor mats, squatting in the formal Javanese sitting posture called sila (with legs folded inward and crossed in front of the body and with the trunk ramrod stiff). The room slowly fills with the odor f the burning incense, and there is little subdued small talk as people drift in and seat themselves (there is no special order) in a large circle around the food, which has already been placed in the center. When all have arrived and the circle is complete, the ceremony begins.

The host open the ceremony with a speech in very formal high-Javanese. First, he expresses his profound gratitude for his neighbors’ attendance. He regards them, he says, as witnesses to the purity and the nature of his intentions and to the fast that the is holding the required rite in order to realize there excellent intentions, and he hopes they will share in any benefit the ceremony brings, second, he states these intentions: he presents the specific reason for the slametan. Next, he gives the general reason for the rite. This is always the same to secure for himself, his family, and his guest, that peculiarly negative state of bodily and mental equanimity the Javanese call smalet from which the ritual takes its name. to this end he petitions the spirit of the village, young and old, male and female. Lastly he begs pardon for any errors he may have made in his speech or anything he may have said which disturbed anyone and for the inadequacy of the food he is serving. Through the whole speech he speaks in an even, rhythmic, mechanical cadence and at each pause speech the audience responds with a solemn “inggih” – it means yes in English.

The meaning of the slametan

Why do Javanese hold slametans? When I asked this questins of an old bricklayer, he gave two reasons: “when you give a slametan, nobody feels any different from anyone else and so they don’t want to split up. Also a slametan protects you against the spirit, so they will not upset you.” this tendency to the state the implications of social behavior in psychological terms, according to its ultimate effect on the individual’s emotional equilibrium and to state to those implications negatively is characteristic. At a slametan everyone is treated the same. The result is that no one feels different from anyone else and so no one has a wish to split off from the other person. Also after you have given a slametan the local spirits will not bother you, will not make you feel ill, unhappy, confused. The goals are negative and psychological –absence of aggressive feeling toward others, absence of emotional disturbance. The wished – for state is slamet which the Javanese defines with the phrase “ga ono opo-opo” – “there isn’t anything” or more aptly “nothing is going to happen (to anyone).”

But since something might happen and almost inevitably does, the abangan, aware of this, personifies the possibility of unseen bad fortune in terms of spirit belief and attempts to deal with the spirits by means of the slametan. The reason for this, no doubt, is that there are more of them in java – all around the house (especially the toilet) at every unusual point in the landscape, around the cemeteries, at old Hindu ruins: and the woods are full of them. Thus the incense and the aroma of the food at the slametan are considered as food for the spirits in order to pacify them so they will not disturb the living. As a Javanese put it: “At slametan all kinds of invisible beings come and sit with us and they also eat the food. That’s why the food and not the prayer is the heart of the slametan. The spirits eats the aroma of the food. It’s like this banana. They smell it but it doesn’t disappear. That’s why the food is left for us after the spirit has already eaten it.”